## Finite vs. Infinite Games

In game theory, there are two types of games, finite and infinite.

 Finite Games Infinite Games Players Known Known and Unknown Rules Fixed Changeable Objective Agreed upon Perpetuate the Game Example Baseball Cold War

When you pit a finite player vs. a finite player, the system is stable.

When you pit an infinite player vs. an infinite player, the system is stable.

In an infinite game, there are no winners and losers. Because there are no winners or losers, the only thing a player can do is drop out, when he or she no longer has resources or the will to play.

Problems arise when you pit a finite player vs. an infinite player. The finite player gets caught in quagmire.

This happens in business all the time.

The game of business is an infinite game. The concept of business has lasted longer than every single business that exists right now.

The funny thing about business is the number of companies that are playing finite games. They are playing to win, to be the best, to beat the quarter, or the year. And they are always frustrated by that company that has an amazing vision. Over the long term, the infinite player will always win…

This is what happened to the United States in Vietnam.

## Python Tutorial – Getting Started

Contact: andrewshamlet@gmail.com // @andrewshamlet

Getting Started

Congratulations, and welcome to Stock Technical Analysis in Python!

You have taken your first step towards making smarter, more disciplined trading decisions.

Before diving in, let’s make sure you have everything you may need.

Anaconda 4.4.0

Pandas, Numpy, and MatPlotLib

Anaconda comes pre-loaded with the three modules you will use throughout the course.

Quantopian

You will backtest your strategy using the Quantopian platform.-

StockCharts, Investopedia, and Google Finance are great resources for financial knowledge.

Stack Overflow

Stack Overflow is a great resource for coding questions.-

You are now ready to dive in!

## Python Tutorial: Stochastic Oscillator

Last Tutorial, we outlined steps for calculating the Mass Index.

In this Tutorial, we introduce a new technical indicator, the Stochastic Oscillator.

Developed by George C. Lane in the late 1950s, the Stochastic Oscillator is a momentum indicator that shows the location of the close relative to the high-low range over a set number of periods.

The Stochastic Oscillator is calculated as follows:

``````%K = (Current Close - Lowest Low)/(Highest High - Lowest Low) * 100
%D = 3-day SMA of %K

Lowest Low = lowest low for the look-back period
Highest High = highest high for the look-back period``````

The default setting for the Stochastic Oscillator is 14 periods, which can be days, weeks, months or an intraday timeframe. A 14-period %K would use the most recent close, the highest high over the last 14 periods and the lowest low over the last 14 periods. %D is a 3-day simple moving average of %K.

As a bound oscillator, the Stochastic Oscillator makes it easy to identify overbought and oversold levels. The oscillator ranges from zero to one hundred. No matter how fast a security advances or declines, the Stochastic Oscillator will always fluctuate within this range. Traditional settings use 80 as the overbought threshold and 20 as the oversold threshold. These levels can be adjusted to suit analytical needs and security characteristics. Readings above 80 for the 20-day Stochastic Oscillator would indicate that the underlying security was trading near the top of its 20-day high-low range. Readings below 20 occur when a security is trading at the low end of its high-low range.

Before looking at some chart examples, it is important to note that overbought readings are not necessarily bearish. Securities can become overbought and remain overbought during a strong uptrend. Closing levels that are consistently near the top of the range indicate sustained buying pressure. In a similar vein, oversold readings are not necessarily bullish. Securities can also become oversold and remain oversold during a strong downtrend. Closing levels consistently near the bottom of the range indicate sustained selling pressure. It is, therefore, important to identify the bigger trend and trade in the direction of this trend. Look for occasional oversold readings in an uptrend and ignore frequent overbought readings. Similarly, look for occasional overbought readings in a strong downtrend and ignore frequent oversold readings.

Let’s use Python to compute the Stochastic Oscillator.

1.) Import modules.

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from pandas_datareader import data as web
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline``````

2.a.) Define function for querying daily close.

``````def get_stock(stock,start,end):

2.b.) Define function for querying daily high.

``````def get_high(stock,start,end):

2.c.) Define function for querying daily low.

``````def get_low(stock,start,end):

3.) Define function for the Stochastic Oscillator, both %K and %D.

``````def STOK(close, low, high, n):
STOK = ((close - pd.rolling_min(low, n)) / (pd.rolling_max(high, n) - pd.rolling_min(low, n))) * 100
return STOK

def STOD(close, low, high, n):
STOK = ((close - pd.rolling_min(low, n)) / (pd.rolling_max(high, n) - pd.rolling_min(low, n))) * 100
STOD = pd.rolling_mean(STOK, 3)
return STOD``````

How does the Stochastic Oscillator function work?

3.a.) To calculate %K, we find the difference between the current close and the lowest low for the look-back period, n. We then find the difference between the highest high for the look-back period, n, and the lowest low for the same look-back period. Dividing these two values and multiplying the result by 100, we arrive at %K, which we set to variable STOK.

``#STOK = ((close - pd.rolling_min(low, n)) / (pd.rolling_max(high, n) - pd.rolling_min(low, n))) * 100``

3.b.) Function returns STOK.

``#return STOK``

3.c.) To calculate %D, we first calculate %K.

``#STOK = ((close - pd.rolling_min(low, n)) / (pd.rolling_max(high, n) - pd.rolling_min(low, n))) * 100``

3.d.) Then we take the 3 day moving average of %K, and set the value to variable STOD.

``#STOD = pd.rolling_mean(STOK, 3) ``

3.e.) Function returns STOD.

``#return STOD ``

4.) Query daily close, high, and low for ‘FB’ during 2016.

``````df = pd.DataFrame(get_stock('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016'))
df['High'] = get_high('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['Low'] = get_low('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')``````

5.) Run daily close, low, and high through %K and %D functions. Save series to new columns in dataframe.

``````df['%K'] = STOK(df['Close'], df['Low'], df['High'], 14)
df['%D'] = STOD(df['Close'], df['Low'], df['High'], 14)
df.tail()``````

6.) Plot daily close, %K, and %D.

``````df.plot(y=['Close'], figsize = (20, 5))
df.plot(y=['%K', '%D'], figsize = (20, 5))``````

There you have it! We created our Stochastic Oscillator indicator. Here’s the full code:

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from pandas_datareader import data as web
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

def get_stock(stock,start,end):

def get_high(stock,start,end):

def get_low(stock,start,end):

def STOK(close, low, high, n):
STOK = ((close - pd.rolling_min(low, n)) / (pd.rolling_max(high, n) - pd.rolling_min(low, n))) * 100
return STOK

def STOD(close, low, high, n):
STOK = ((close - pd.rolling_min(low, n)) / (pd.rolling_max(high, n) - pd.rolling_min(low, n))) * 100
STOD = pd.rolling_mean(STOK, 3)
return STOD

df = pd.DataFrame(get_stock('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016'))
df['High'] = get_high('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['Low'] = get_low('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['%K'] = STOK(df['Close'], df['Low'], df['High'], 14)
df['%D'] = STOD(df['Close'], df['Low'], df['High'], 14)
df.tail()``````

## Python Tutorial: Mass Index

Python streamlines tasks requiring multiple steps in a single block of code. For this reason, it is a great tool for querying and performing analysis on data.

Last Tutorial, we outlined steps for calculating Commodity Channel Index (CCI).

In this Tutorial, we introduce a new technical indicator, the Mass Index.

Developed by Donald Dorsey, the Mass Index uses the high-low range to identify trend reversals based on range expansions. In this sense, the Mass Index is a volatility indicator that does not have a directional bias. Instead, the Mass Index identifies range bulges that can foreshadow a reversal of the current trend.

The Mass Index is calculated as follows:

``````Single EMA = 9-period exponential moving average (EMA) of the high-low differential

Double EMA = 9-period EMA of the 9-period EMA of the high-low differential

EMA Ratio = Single EMA divided by Double EMA

Mass Index = 25-period sum of the EMA Ratio``````

First, the Single EMA provides the average for the high-low range.

Second, the Double EMA provides a second smoothing of this volatility measure.

Using a ratio of these two exponential moving averages normalizes the data series. This ratio shows when the Single EMA becomes large relative to the Double EMA.

The final step, a 25-period summation, acts like a moving average to further smooth the data series.

Overall, the Mass Index rises as the high-low range widens and falls as the high-low range narrows.

Donald Dorsey looked for “reversal bulges” to signal a trend reversal. According to Dorsey, a bulge occurs when the Mass Index moves above 27. This initial bulge does not complete the signal though. Dorsey waited for this bulge to reverse with a move back below 26.50. Once the reversal bulge is complete, traders should use other analysis techniques to determine the direction of the next move. Ideally, a downtrend followed by a reversal bulge would suggest a bullish trend reversal. Conversely, an uptrend followed by a reversal bulge would suggest a bearish trend reversal.

Let’s use Python to compute the Mass Index.

1.) Import modules.

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from pandas_datareader import data as web
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline``````

2.a.) Define function for querying daily close.

``````def get_stock(stock,start,end):

2.b.) Define function for querying daily high.

``````def get_high(stock,start,end):

2.c.) Define function for querying daily low.

``````def get_low(stock,start,end):

3.) Define function for Mass Index.

``````def MassIndex(high, low):
Range = high - low
EX1 = pd.ewma(Range, span = 9, min_periods = 8)
EX2 = pd.ewma(EX1, span = 9, min_periods = 8)
Mass = EX1 / EX2
MassIndex = pd.Series(pd.rolling_sum(Mass, 25), name = 'Mass Index')
return MassIndex``````

How does the Mass Index function work?

3.a.) Function calculates the difference between the high and the low, and sets this value to variable Range.

``#Range = high - low  ``

3.b.) Function takes a 9 period Exponential Moving Average of the Range, and sets this value to variable EX1.

``#EX1 = pd.ewma(Range, span = 9, min_periods = 8)  ``

3.c.) Function takes a 9 period Exponential Moving Average of the EX1, to smooth volatility, and sets this value to variable EX2.

``#EX2 = pd.ewma(EX1, span = 9, min_periods = 8)  ``

3.d.) Function takes the ratio of EX1 to EX2, and sets this value to variable Mass.

``#Mass = EX1 / EX2  ``

3.e.) Function calculates the 25 period rolling sum of Mass, and sets this value to variable MassIndex.

``#MassIndex = pd.Series(pd.rolling_sum(Mass, 25), name = 'Mass Index')  ``

3.f.) Function returns MassIndex.

``#return MassIndex``

4.) Query daily close, high, and low for ‘FB’ during 2016.

``````df = pd.DataFrame(get_stock('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016'))
df['High'] = get_high('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['Low'] = get_low('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')``````

5.) Run daily high and low through Mass Index function. Save series to new column in dataframe.

``````df['MassIndex'] = MassIndex(df['High'], df['Low'])
df.tail()``````

6.) Plot daily close and Mass Index.

``````df.plot(y=['Close'])
df.plot(y=['MassIndex'])``````

There you have it! We created our Mass Index indicator. Here’s the full code:

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from pandas_datareader import data as web
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

def get_stock(stock,start,end):

def get_high(stock,start,end):

def get_low(stock,start,end):

def MassIndex(high, low):
Range = high - low
EX1 = pd.ewma(Range, span = 9, min_periods = 8)
EX2 = pd.ewma(EX1, span = 9, min_periods = 8)
Mass = EX1 / EX2
MassIndex = pd.Series(pd.rolling_sum(Mass, 25), name = 'Mass Index')
return MassIndex

df = pd.DataFrame(get_stock('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016'))
df['High'] = get_high('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['Low'] = get_low('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['MassIndex'] = MassIndex(df['High'], df['Low'])
df.tail()``````

## Python Tutorial: CCI

Python streamlines tasks requiring multiple steps in a single block of code. For this reason, it is a great tool for querying and performing analysis on data.

Last Tutorial, we outlined steps for calculating Rate of Change (ROC).

In this Tutorial, we introduce a new technical indicator, the Commodity Channel Index (CCI).

Developed by Donald Lambert, the Commodity Channel Index (CCI) is a versatile indicator that can be used to identify a new trend or warn of extreme conditions. CCI measures the current price level relative to an average price level over a given period of time. CCI is relatively high when prices are far above their average. CCI is relatively low when prices are far below their average. In this manner, CCI can be used to identify overbought and oversold levels.

The Commodity Channel Index (CCI) is calculated as follows:

``````CCI = (Typical Price  -  n-period SMA of TP) / (Constant x Mean Deviation)

Typical Price (TP) = (High + Low + Close)/3

Constant = .015
``````

Lambert set the Constant at .015 to ensure that approximately 70 to 80 percent of CCI values would fall between -100 and +100. This percentage also depends on the look-back period. A shorter CCI (10 periods) will be more volatile with a smaller percentage of values between +100 and -100. Conversely, a longer CCI (40 periods) will have a higher percentage of values between +100 and -100.

Lambert set the Constant at .015 to ensure that approximately 70 to 80 percent of CCI values would fall between -100 and +100. This percentage also depends on the look-back period. A shorter CCI (10 periods) will be more volatile with a smaller percentage of values between +100 and -100. Conversely, a longer CCI (40 periods) will have a higher percentage of values between +100 and -100.

The Commodity Channel Index (CCI) can be used as either a coincident or leading indicator. As a coincident indicator, surges above +100 reflect strong price action that can signal the start of an uptrend. Plunges below -100 reflect weak price action that can signal the start of a downtrend.

As a leading indicator, chartists can look for overbought or oversold conditions that may foreshadow a mean reversion. Similarly, bullish and bearish divergences can be used to detect early momentum shifts and anticipate trend reversals.

Let’s use Python to compute the Commodity Channel Index (CCI).

1.) Import modules.

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from pandas_datareader import data as web
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline``````

2.a.) Define function for querying daily close.

``````def get_stock(stock,start,end):

2.b.) Define function for querying daily high.

``````def get_high(stock,start,end):

2.c.) Define function for querying daily low.

``````def get_low(stock,start,end):

3.) Define function for Commodity Channel Index (CCI).

``````def CCI(close, high, low, n, constant):
TP = (high + low + close) / 3
CCI = pd.Series((TP - pd.rolling_mean(TP, n)) / (constant * pd.rolling_std(TP, n)), name = 'CCI_' + str(n))
return CCI``````

How does the CCI function work?

3.a.) Function calculates Typical Price as the sum of the (High, Low, and Close) divided by three. The function sets this value to variable TP.

``#TP = (high + low + close) / 3  ``

3.b.) Function subtracts n period simple moving average of the Typical Price from the current Typical Price. The difference is divided by the n period standard deviation of the Typical Price multiplied by the constant. The function sets this value to variable CCI.

``#CCI = pd.Series((TP - pd.rolling_mean(TP, n)) / (constant * pd.rolling_std(TP, n)), name = 'CCI_' + str(n))  ``

3.c.) Function returns CCI

``#return CCI``

4.) Query daily close, high, and low for ‘FB’ during 2016.

``````df = pd.DataFrame(get_stock('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016'))
df['High'] = get_high('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['Low'] = get_low('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')``````

5.) Run daily close, high, and low through CCI function. Save series to new column in dataframe.

``````df['CCI'] = CCI(df['Close'], df['High'], df['Low'], 20, 0.015)
df.tail()``````

6.) Plot daily close and CCI.

``````df.plot(y=['Close'])
df.plot(y=['CCI'])``````

There you have it! We created our CCI indicator. Here’s the full code:

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from pandas_datareader import data as web
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

def get_stock(stock,start,end):

def get_high(stock,start,end):

def get_low(stock,start,end):

def CCI(close, high, low, n, constant):
TP = (high + low + close) / 3
CCI = pd.Series((TP - pd.rolling_mean(TP, n)) / (constant * pd.rolling_std(TP, n)), name = 'CCI_' + str(n))
return CCI

df = pd.DataFrame(get_stock('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016'))
df['High'] = get_high('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['Low'] = get_low('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016')
df['CCI'] = CCI(df['Close'], df['High'], df['Low'], 20, 0.015)
df.tail()``````

## Quantopian: RSI Strategy Backtest

Relative Strength Index (RSI) Strategy Backtest

Contact: andrewshamlet@gmail.com // @andrewshamlet

View the Quantopian Backtest here.

Summary

• The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is a momentum indicator that compares the magnitude of recent gains and losses over a specified time period. RSI values range from 0 to 100.
• For this strategy, we buy \$FB when the RSI is less than 30, and we will sell \$FB when the RSI is greater than 70. The RSI will be calculated at a minutely frequency, as opposed to a daily frequency.
• During 01/01/16 – 12/31/16,
• The RSI Strategy produces 32.2% return, resulting in \$3,220 pre-tax return.
• FB Buy & Hold produces 10.0% return, resulting in \$1,000 pre-tax return.
• SPY Buy & Hold produces 12.0% return, resulting in \$1,200 pre-tax return.
• Compared to the SPY Buy & Hold, the RSI Strategy produces \$2,220 Alpha whereas FB Buy & Hold produces (\$200) Alpha, both on \$10,000, principal.
• During 05/19/12 – 12/31/16,
• The RSI Strategy produces 147.4% return, resulting in \$14,740 pre-tax return.
• FB Buy & Hold produces 238.5% return, resulting in \$23,850 pre-tax return.
• SPY Buy & Hold produces 89.6% return, resulting in \$8,960 pre-tax return.
• Compared to SPY Buy & Hold, the RSI Strategy produces \$5,780 Alpha whereas FB Buy & Hold produces \$14,890 Alpha, both on \$10,000 principal.
• Thus, on the broader time horizon, FB Buy & Hold outperforms the RSI Strategy.
• The question still stands: what about 2016 makes the RSI Strategy superior in performance to FB Buy & Hold?

Introduction

In this post, we use Quantopian to build and backtest a Relative Strength Index (RSI) trading strategy.

Quantopian

Quantopian provides capital, education, data, a research environment, and a development platform to algorithm authors (quants). Quantopian provides everything a quant needs to create a strategy and profit from it.

Quantopian’s members include finance professionals, scientists, developers, and students from more than 180 countries from around the world. The members collaborate in our forums and in person at regional meetups, workshops, and QuantCon, Quantopian’s flagship annual event.”

In other words, Quantopian is a website where one can build, test, and deploy trading strategies, using Python.

Relative Strength Index

To review, the Relative Strength Index (RSI) is a momentum indicator that compares the magnitude of recent gains and losses over a specified time period to measure speed and change of price movements of a security. It is primarily used to identify overbought or oversold conditions in the trading of an asset.

RSI values range from 0 to 100.

The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is calculated as follows:

``````RSI = 100 - 100 / (1 + RS)

RS = Average gain of last 14 trading days / Average loss of last 14 trading days
``````

Strategy

For this strategy, we buy \$FB when the RSI is less than 30, and we will sell \$FB when the RSI is greater than 70. The RSI will be calculated at a minutely frequency, as opposed to a daily frequency.

``````Trading Strategy

Sell - RSI > 70
``````

Code

Here is the Python code for the RSI Strategy.

```import talib
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

def initialize(context):
context.stocks = symbols('FB')
context.pct_per_stock = 1.0 / len(context.stocks)
context.LOW_RSI = 30
context.HIGH_RSI = 70

set_benchmark(sid(42950))

def handle_data(context, data):
prices = data.history(context.stocks, 'price', 40, '1d')

rsis = {}

for stock in context.stocks:
rsi = talib.RSI(prices[stock], timeperiod=14)[-1]
rsis[stock] = rsi

current_position = context.portfolio.positions[stock].amount

if rsi > context.HIGH_RSI and current_position > 0 and data.can_trade(stock):
order_target(stock, 0)

elif rsi < context.LOW_RSI and current_position == 0 and data.can_trade(stock):
order_target_percent(stock, context.pct_per_stock)

record(FB_rsi=rsis[symbol('FB')])```

At its foundation, Quantopian code is made up of three chunks: import modules, initialize, and handle_data.

1.) First we import the Talib, Numpy, and Pandas modules. As we’ll see, Talib streamlines the calculation of Technical Indicators.

``````import talib
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
``````

2.)  The initialize function:

``````def initialize(context):
context.stocks = symbols('FB')
context.pct_per_stock = 1.0 / len(context.stocks)
context.LOW_RSI = 30
context.HIGH_RSI = 70

set_benchmark(sid(42950)) ``````

2.a.) Define the security to trade, \$FB.

``context.stocks = symbols('FB') ``

2.b.) Define the weight of each security. Since the RSI Strategy trades one security, the weight is 1.0. If there were two securities, the weight would be 0.5.

``context.pct_per_stock = 1.0 / len(context.stocks) ``

2.c.) Define the LOW_RSI value as 30

``context.LOW_RSI = 30 ``

2.d.) Define the HIGH_RSI value as 70

``context.HIGH_RSI = 70 ``

2.e.) Define the benchmark to which we will compare our strategy. In the example, the benchmark is set to \$FB, essentially a buy and hold strategy. Remove ‘set_benchmark()’ to set the benchmark to the standard, ‘SPY’, or market rate.

``set_benchmark(sid(42950)) ``

3.)  The handle_data function:

``````def handle_data(context, data):
prices = data.history(context.stocks, 'price', 40, '1d')

rsis = {}

for stock in context.stocks:
rsi = talib.RSI(prices[stock], timeperiod=14)[-1]
rsis[stock] = rsi

current_position = context.portfolio.positions[stock].amount

if rsi > context.HIGH_RSI and current_position > 0 and data.can_trade(stock):
order_target(stock, 0)

elif rsi < context.LOW_RSI and current_position == 0 and data.can_trade(stock):
order_target_percent(stock, context.pct_per_stock)

record(FB_rsi=rsis[symbol('FB')])
``````

3.a.) Query the ‘FB’ historical price data for the past 40 trading days.

``prices = data.history(context.stocks, 'price', 40, '1d') ``

3.b.) Create dictionary of RSI values.

``rsis = {} ``

3.c.) Create for loop for RSI calculation and order logic.

``for stock in context.stocks: ``

3.d.) Use Talib to calculate Relative Strength Index.

``rsi = talib.RSI(prices[stock], timeperiod=14)[-1]``

3.e.) Save Talib output to dictionary.

``rsis[stock] = rsi ``

3.f.) Save current portfolio positions in order to not execute too many/few orders.

``current_position = context.portfolio.positions[stock].amount ``

3.g.) Order logic: if RSI is greater than 70 and positions are greater than 0, then sell all positions.

``````if rsi > context.HIGH_RSI and current_position > 0 and data.can_trade(stock):
order_target(stock, 0) ``````

3.h.) Order logic: if RSI is less than 30 and positions are equal to 0, then buy positions equal to weight defined in initialize function.

``````elif rsi < context.LOW_RSI and current_position == 0 and data.can_trade(stock):
order_target_percent(stock, context.pct_per_stock)
``````

3.i.) Chart RSI data for \$FB.

``record(FB_rsi=rsis[symbol('FB')])``

1 Year Performance

For the time period, 01/01/16 – 12/31/16

 % Return Principal Pre-Tax Return Alpha RSI Strategy 32.2% \$10,000 \$3,220 \$2,220 FB Buy & Hold 10.0% \$10,000 \$1,000 (\$200) SPY Buy & Hold 12.0% \$10,000 \$1,200 N/A

We backtest the RSI Strategy with a \$10,000 principal for the time period, 01/01/16 – 12/31/16.

During 01/01/16 – 12/31/16,

• The RSI Strategy produces 32.2% return, resulting in \$3,220 pre-tax return.
• FB Buy & Hold produces 10.0% return, resulting in \$1,000 pre-tax return.
• SPY Buy & Hold produces 12.0% return, resulting in \$1,200 pre-tax return.
• Compared to the SPY Buy & Hold, the RSI Strategy produces \$2,220 Alpha whereas FB Buy & Hold produces (\$200) Alpha, both on \$10,000, principal.

Beyond 1 Year Performance

Yes, \$2,220 Alpha on \$10,000 principal is impressive.

Before we go and bet the farm, let’s see how the RSI Strategy performs over a longer time period.

Since the ‘FB’ IPO occurred on 05/18/12, we will backtest for the period 05/19/12 – 12/31/16.

For the time period, 05/19/12 – 12/31/16

 % Return Principal Pre-Tax Return Alpha RSI Strategy 147.4% \$10,000 \$14,740 \$5,780 FB Buy & Hold 238.5% \$10,000 \$23,850 \$14,890 SPY Buy & Hold 89.6% 10,000 \$8,960 N/A

During 05/19/12 – 12/31/16,

• The RSI Strategy produces 147.4% return, resulting in \$14,740 pre-tax return.
• FB Buy & Hold produces 238.5% return, resulting in \$23,850 pre-tax return.
• SPY Buy & Hold produces 89.6% return, resulting in \$8,960 pre-tax return.
• Compared to SPY Buy & Hold, the RSI Strategy produces \$5,780 Alpha whereas FB Buy & Hold produces \$14,890 Alpha, both on \$10,000 principal.

Thus, on the broader time horizon, FB Buy & Hold outperforms the RSI Strategy.

Concluding Thought

Over the long term, money would go further with the FB Buy & Hold strategy.

The question still stands: what about 2016 makes the RSI Strategy superior in performance to FB Buy & Hold?

Until next time!

## Python Tutorial: RSI

Python streamlines tasks requiring multiple steps in a single block of code. For this reason, it is a great tool for querying and performing analysis on data.

Last Tutorial, we outlined steps for calculating Price Channels.

In this Tutorial, we introduce a new technical indicator, the Relative Strenght Index (RSI).

The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is a momentum indicator developed by noted technical analyst Welles Wilder, that compares the magnitude of recent gains and losses over a specified time period to measure speed and change of price movements of a security. It is primarily used to identify overbought or oversold conditions in the trading of an asset.

The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is calculated as follows:

``````RSI = 100 - 100 / (1 + RS)

RS = Average gain of last 14 trading days / Average loss of last 14 trading days
``````

RSI values range from 0 to 100.

Traditional interpretation and usage of the RSI is that RSI values of 70 or above indicate that a security is becoming overbought or overvalued, and therefore may be primed for a trend reversal or corrective pullback in price. On the other side, an RSI reading of 30 or below is commonly interpreted as indicating an oversold or undervalued condition that may signal a trend change or corrective price reversal to the upside.

Let’s use Python to compute the Relative Strenght Index (RSI).

1.) Import modules (numpy included).

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from pandas_datareader import data as web
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline``````

2.) Define function for querying daily close.

``````def get_stock(stock,start,end):

3.) Define function for RSI.

``````def RSI(series, period):
delta = series.diff().dropna()
u = delta * 0
d = u.copy()
u[delta > 0] = delta[delta > 0]
d[delta < 0] = -delta[delta < 0]
u[u.index[period-1]] = np.mean( u[:period] ) #first value is sum of avg gains
u = u.drop(u.index[:(period-1)])
d[d.index[period-1]] = np.mean( d[:period] ) #first value is sum of avg losses
d = d.drop(d.index[:(period-1)])
rs = pd.stats.moments.ewma(u, com=period-1, adjust=False) / \
return 100 - 100 / (1 + rs)``````

How does the RSI function work?

– 3.a.) Function creates two series of daily differences.

– 3.b.) One series is daily positive differences, i.e. gains.

– 3.c.) One series is daily negative difference, i.e. losses.

– 3.d.) Average daily positive differences for the period specified.

– 3.e.) Average daily negative difference for the period specified.

– 3.f.) RS is set equal to Exponential Moving Average of daily positive differences for the period sepcified / Exponential Moving Average of daily positive differences for the period sepcified.

– 3.g) Return 100 – 100 / (1 + RS)

4.) Query daily close for ‘FB’ during 2016.

``df = pd.DataFrame(get_stock('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016'))``

5.) Run daily close through RSI function. Save series to new column in dataframe.

``````df['RSI'] = RSI(df['Close'], 14)
df.tail()``````

6.) Plot daily close and RSI.

``````df.plot(y=['Close'])
df.plot(y=['RSI'])``````

There you have it! We created our RSI indicator. Here’s the full code:

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from pandas_datareader import data as web
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

def get_stock(stock,start,end):

def RSI(series, period):
delta = series.diff().dropna()
u = delta * 0
d = u.copy()
u[delta > 0] = delta[delta > 0]
d[delta < 0] = -delta[delta < 0]
u[u.index[period-1]] = np.mean( u[:period] ) #first value is sum of avg gains
u = u.drop(u.index[:(period-1)])
d[d.index[period-1]] = np.mean( d[:period] ) #first value is sum of avg losses
d = d.drop(d.index[:(period-1)])
rs = pd.stats.moments.ewma(u, com=period-1, adjust=False) / \
return 100 - 100 / (1 + rs)

df = pd.DataFrame(get_stock('FB', '1/1/2016', '12/31/2016'))
df['RSI'] = RSI(df['Close'], 14)
df.tail()``````

## Sentiment Analysis: Donald Trump & Hillary Clinton Tweets, Oct 5 – Oct 11, 2015

Emotion drives our decision-making. By appealing to emotion, others can persuade us to make decisions. We experience this during political campaigns.

Donald Trump knows the power of emotion. A charismatic leader, Trump infuses his speeches with appeals to emotion. Sentiment analysis makes this clear.

Comparing Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton, I sampled tweets from their respective profiles, published between Monday October 5, 2015, and Sunday October 11, 2015. Using sentiment analysis, each tweet was given a score between -1, the most negative, and +1, the most positive. Plotted across the 7 days, the results are displayed below, with Trump in red and Hillary in blue.

Trump exhibits a noisier sentiment artifact. Trump has almost no tweets with a sentiment score of 0. Trump peaks at +1 nine times; Hillary peaks at +1 three times. Using statistics, we see with Trump there is a greater range of sentiment, with a tendency towards positive sentiment. The Median Sentiment for Donald Trump is 0.21, whereas the Median Sentiment for Hillary Clinton is 0. The Standard Deviation for Donald Trump is 0.39, whereas the Standard Deviation for Hillary Clinton is 0.30.

 Donald Trump Hillary Clinton Median Sentiment 0.21 0.00 Standard Deviation 0.39 0.30

So why does this matter? Noisy sentiment drives engagement.

The chart below shows average tweet engagement for the respective profiles, for tweets published between Monday October 5, 2015, and Sunday October 11, 2015.

 Donald Trump Hillary Clinton Avg. Retweets 1028 783 Avg. Favorites 2136 1196